Simon Bolivar and the United States of South America

Posted by Alex on Wednesday, 23 December 2009 14:37.

There is a presumed history of things that is taught to most, that even the less powerful from amongst the elites believe…and then there is another history of these events, that only a relative few and powerful know.    It is important for those wishing to see not only the preservation of their own people,  but the other various peoples of the world as well that make up humanity, to have an excellent grasp of the past so as to see clearly as to what to do in the present.  Hence entries here such as this…

After the consolidations of the 1776 American Revolution (the North American revolution of the self) and the 1789 French Revolution (the European counter-revolution of the collective), US and UK elites would, acting in conjunction with Spanish South American elites bring revolution to South America causing its break from Spain.  The pattern would be much the same as it was in North America and Europe, first revolution, then a lightning war effort to conquer the continent by force by the revolutionary forces which would ultimately fail, to be followed by a long drawn out political effort lasting many years to unify the continent.  Many of the actors involved in this were members of a most famous international organization.

Leading the South American revolution would be Simon Bolivar, whom is known as ‘the George Washington of South America’.

He was great admirer of the American Revolution and a great critic of the French Revolution. Bolívar described himself in his many letters as a “liberal” and defender of the free market economic system.

Simon Bolivar was a Freemason who was raised in the Scottish Rite, 1807. Simon also founded the Lodge Order and Liberty No. 2 in Peru in 1824

Simon Bolivar (1783-1830)

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (born July 24, 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela; died December 17, 1830, in Santa Marta, Colombia) was a leader of several independence movements throughout South America, collectively known as Bolívar’s War.

Credited with leading the fight for independence in what are now the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, and Bolivia, he is revered as a hero in these countries and throughout much of the rest of Hispanic America.

In 1802, he married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa. She died of yellow fever less than a year later and he never remarried.

Bolívar is known as “El Libertador” (the Liberator).

Simón Bolívar as he is depicted
on a Venezuelan Un Bolivar coin.
The currency in Venezuela is named
in his honor.[/center]

Family heritage and early life

The Bolívar aristocratic bloodline derives from a small village in the Basque Country, called Bolibar, which is the origin of the surname. His father descended remotely from King Fernando III of Castile and Count Amedeo IV of Savoy. The Bolivars settled in Venezuela in the sixteenth century.

A portion of their wealth came from the Aroa River gold and copper mines in Venezuela. In 1632, gold was first mined, leading to further discoveries of extensive copper deposits. Towards the later 1600s, copper was exploited with the name “Cobre Caracas”. These mines became the property of Simón Bolívar’s family. Later in his revolutionary life, Bolívar used part of the mineral income to finance the South American revolutionary wars. Some people claim that his family grew to prominence before gaining great wealth. For example, the Cathedral of Caracas, founded in 1575, has a side chapel dedicated to Simón Bolívar’s family.

Bolívar was born in Caracas, in modern-day Venezuela and educated by tutors after his parents died. Among his tutors was Simón Rodríguez, whose ideas and educational style heavily influenced the young man.

Following the death of his parents, Juan Vicente de Bolívar y Ponte, 1st Marqués de San Luis, and his wife María de la Concepción de Palacios y Blanco, he went to Spain in 1799 to complete his education. There he married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa in 1802, but on a brief return visit to Venezuela in 1803, she succumbed to yellow fever. Bolívar returned to Europe in 1804 and for a time was part of Napoleon’s retinue.


Simon Bolivar was a Freemason who was raised in the Scottish Rite, 1807. Simon also founded the Lodge Order and Liberty No. 2 in Peru in 1824. [1]

Simon Bolivar Monument in Merida, Venezuela

El Libertador

Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807, and, when Napoleon made Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain and its colonies in 1808, he participated in the resistance juntas in South America. The Caracas junta declared its independence in 1810, and Bolívar was sent to Britain on a diplomatic mission.

Bolívar returned again to Venezuela in 1811. In March 1812, Bolívar was forced to leave Venezuela because of an earthquake that destroyed Caracas. In July 1812, junta leader Francisco de Miranda surrendered to the Spanish, and Bolívar had to flee to Cartagena de Indias. In this period, Bolívar wrote his Manifiesto de Cartagena. In 1813, after acquiring a military command in New Granada under the direction of the Congress of Tunja, he led the invasion of Venezuela on May 14. This was the beginning of the famous Campaña Admirable, the Admirable Campaign. He entered Mérida on May 23, where he was proclaimed as El Libertador, following the occupation of Trujillo on June 9. Six days later, on June 15, he dictated his famous Decree of War to the Death (Decreto de Guerra a Muerte). Caracas was retaken on August 6, 1813, and Bolívar was ratified as “El Libertador”, thus proclaiming the Venezuelan Second Republic. Due to the rebellion of José Tomás Boves in 1814 and the fall of the republic, he returned to New Granada, where he then commanded a Colombian nationalist force and entered Bogotá in 1814, recapturing the city from the dissenting republican forces of Cundinamarca. He intended to march into Cartagena and enlist the aid of local forces in order to capture Royalist Santa Marta. However, after a number of political and military disputes with the government of Cartagena, Bolívar fled, in 1815, to Jamaica, where he petitioned the Haitian leader Alexandre Pétion for aid.

In 1816, with Haitian help (given because he promised to free slaves), Bolívar landed in Venezuela and captured Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar).

A victory at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819 added New Granada to the territories free from Spanish control, and in September 7, 1821 the Gran Colombia (a federation covering much of modern Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) was created, with Bolívar as president and Francisco de Paula Santander as vice president.

Further victories at the Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha in 1822 consolidated his rule over Venezuela and Ecuador respectively. After a meeting in Guayaquil, on July 26 and July 27, 1822, with Argentine General José de San Martín, who had received the title of Protector of Peruvian Freedom, in August 1821, after having partially liberated Peru from the Spanish, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. The Peruvian congress named him dictator of Peru, on February 10, 1824, which allowed Bolívar to completely reorganize the political and military administration. Bolívar, assisted by Antonio José de Sucre, decisively defeated the Spanish cavalry, on August 6, 1824, at Junín. Sucre destroyed the still numerically superior remnants of the Spanish forces at Ayacucho on December 9.

On August 6, 1825, at the Congress of Upper Peru, the Republic of Bolivia was created. Bolívar is thus one of the few men to have a country named after him. The constitution reflected the influence of the French and Scottish Enlightenment on Bolívar’s political thought, as well as that of classical Greek and Roman authors.

Bolívar had great difficulties maintaining control of the vast Gran Colombia. During 1826, internal divisions had sparked dissent throughout the nation and regional uprisings erupted in Venezuela, thus the fragile South American coalition appeared to be on the verge of collapse.

An amnesty was declared and an arrangement was reached with the Venezuelan rebels, but political dissent in New Granada grew as a consequence of this. In an attempt to keep the federation together as a single entity, Bolívar called for a constitutional convention at Ocaña during April 1828.

He had seen his dream of eventually creating an American Revolution-style federation between all the newly independent republics, with a government ideally set-up solely to recognize and uphold individual rights, succumb to the pressures of particular interests throughout the region, which rejected that model and allegedly had little or no allegiance to liberal principles.

For this reason, and to prevent a break-up, Bolívar wanted to implement in Gran Colombia a more centralist model of government, including some or all of the elements of the Bolivian constitution he had written (which included a lifetime presidency with the ability to select a successor, though this was theoretically held in check by an intricate system of balances).

This move was considered controversial and was one of the reasons why the deliberations met with strong opposition. The convention almost ended up drafting a document which would have implemented a radically federalist form of government, which would have greatly reduced the powers of the central administration.

Unhappy with what would be the ensuing result, Bolívar’s delegates left the convention. After the failure of the convention due to grave political differences, Bolívar proclaimed himself dictator on August 27, 1828 through the “Organic Decree of Dictatorship”.

He considered this as a temporary measure, as a means to reestablish his authority and save the republic, though it increased dissatisfaction and anger among his political opponents. An assassination attempt on September 25, 1828 failed, in part thanks to the help of his lover, Manuela Sáenz, according to popular belief.

Although Bolívar emerged physically intact from the event, this nevertheless greatly affected him. Dissident feelings continued, and uprisings occurred in New Granada, Venezuela and Ecuador during the next two years.

Statue of Simón Bolívar in Belgrave Square, London

Death and Legacy

Bolívar finally resigned his presidency on April 27, 1830, intending to leave the country for exile in Europe, possibly in France. He had already sent several crates (containing his belongings and his writings) ahead of him to Europe.

He died before setting sail, after a painful battle with tuberculosis on December 17, 1830, in “La Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino”, in Santa Marta, Colombia.

His remains were moved from Santa Marta to Caracas in 1842, where a monument was set up for his burial. The ‘Quinta’ near Santa Marta has been preserved as a museum with numerous references to his life.[3]

Simón Bolívar Memorial Monument
in Santa Marta, Colombia

Political legacy

On his deathbed, Bolívar asked his aide-de-camp, General Daniel Florencio O’Leary to burn the extensive archive of his writings, letters, and speeches. O’Leary disobeyed the order and his writings survived, providing historians with a vast wealth of information about Bolívar’s liberal philosophy and thought.

He was great admirer of the American Revolution and a great critic of the French Revolution. Bolívar described himself in his many letters as a “liberal” and defender of the free market economic system. Among the books he traveled with when he wrote the Bolivian Constitution were Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws and Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations.

Bolívar’s many speeches and writings reveal him to be an adherent of limited government, the separation of powers, freedom of religion, property rights, and the rule of law.


Simón Bolívar has no direct descendants. His bloodline lives on through his sister Juana Bolívar y Palacios who married their maternal uncle Dionisio Palacios y Blanco and had two children: Guillermo and Benigna.

Guillermo died when fighting alongside his uncle in the battle of La Hogaza in 1817. Benigna Palacios y Bolívar married Pedro Amestoy. Their great-grandchildren, Pedro (94), and Eduardo Mendoza Goiticoa (90) live in Caracas. They are Simón Bolívar’s closest living relatives.[3]


In addition to the statues shown elsewhere in this article, there is an equestrian statue commemorating Bolívar’s life and works in Washington, D.C., a statue at the UN Plaza in San Francisco, a statue in the Basque Country, Spain, a statue on the Reforma Avenue in Mexico City, a statue in Cairo, Egypt, another statue signifying the friendship between Quebec and South America in Quebec City and Ottawa, and also a bust in Sydney, Australia. A statue in Bolivar, Missouri which was presented by President Rómulo Gallegos of Venezuela and dedicated by President Harry S. Truman. A central avenue in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, bears his name. Bolivar, West Virginia displays a bust.

Furthermore, every city and town in Venezuela & Colombia (in this one each capital city but Pasto) have a main square known as Plaza Bolivar, that usually has a bust or a statue of Bolivar, the most famous of these Plaza Bolivar is the one in Caracas. The central avenue of Caracas is called Avenida Bolivar, and at its end there is a twin tower complex named Centro Simon Bolivar built during the 1950s that holds several governmental offices.

Other notes

Bolívar crossed 123 thousand kilometers, more than Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama together.

President of six nations: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. However, he was only officially president of four nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela).

There is a cigar named after Bolívar.

The city of Bolívar, Tennessee, USA is named after Bolívar.

A town in Missouri, USA is named after Bolívar.

A town in upstate New York, USA is named after Bolívar.

In southern Texas (Galveston County), along the Gulf of Mexico Coast lies the Bolívar Peninsula.

A department in Colombia, a state in Venezuela and a province in Ecuador are named after Bolívar.

A road in New Delhi, India is named after Simón Bolívar.

A street in Mexico City is named after Bolívar (Bolívar spent a few days in a house on that street when he visited Mexico City).

Bolívar summoned the congresses of Angostura and Panamá.


1 Source Grand Lodge of British Columbia & The Yukon
2 Simón Bolívar entry on Find a
3 Simón Bolí, Familia


Additional Links

Rather interesting article from some years back -,2933,256838,00.html




Posted by Alex on Sat, 26 Dec 2009 13:17 | #

This is a continuation of the initial entry…

In the southern portion of South America and in conjunction with Simon Bolivar, José de San Martín would lead the revolution.

While in Spain, San Martín became acquainted with several criollos, and becomes aware of the independentists movements in America. Years later, on September 11, 1848, in a letter to Ramón Castilla he would write that in 1811, “In a meeting of Americans in Cadiz, knowing of the first movements of Caracas, Buenos Aires and elsewhere we resolved to return each to our country of birth, in order to offer our services to the struggle we considered was bound to intensify”.

On May 16, 1811, he participated on the Battle of Albuera under the command of general William Carr Beresford. During the battle he met Scottish Lord MacDuff (James Duff, the Fourth Earl of Fife) who introduced him to the lodges that were plotting the South American independence efforts…

José Francisco de San Martín (1778-1850)

José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America’s successful struggle for independence from Spain. Born on February 25, 1778 in Yapeyú, he left his mother country at an early age and studied in Madrid, Spain where he met and befriended Chilean Bernardo O’Higgins. In 1789, after joining the Spanish forces to fight against the French, and participating in several battles such as the Battle of Bailén and Battle of Albuera, San Martín started making contact with South American supporters of independence.

In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires from England, and offered his services to the United Provinces of the South (roughly present Argentina). After the Battle of San Lorenzo in 1813, and some time in command of the Army of the North during 1814, he started his plan to attack Lima. This involved first creating an army in Cuyo, liberating Chile, and then attacking Lima by sea.

In 1817, in a feat comparable to the Crossing of the Alps by Hannibal and Napoleon, he crossed the Andes from Mendoza to Chile, and prevailed over the Spanish forces after the Battle of Chacabuco and Battle of Maipú (1818), liberating Chile together with Chilean Bernardo O’Higgins. San Martín seized partial control of the viceroyalty’s capital (Lima) in July 12, 1821 and was appointed Protector of Perú. After a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Ecuador on 22 July 1822, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru and declared its independence. San Martín unexpectedly left Perú and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, and moving to France in 1824. The details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by later historians.

Together with Simón Bolívar in the north, San Martín is regarded as one of the Liberators of Spanish South America.

He is the national hero of Argentina.


Son of Spanish Juan de San Martín and Gregoria Matorras, he was born the fifth and last child in February 25, 1778 in Yapeyú, a small village in Corrientes, Argentina.

His father was a Colonel in office as Lieutenant Governor of Yapeyú beginning in 1774. In 1781, the family moved to Buenos Aires.


In 1784, his father was transferred again, this time to Spain. And so the family moved to Spain, and San Martín enrolled in Madrid’s Real Seminario de Nobles where he studied from 1785. While at the Real Seminario de Nobles he met and became friends with Bernardo O’Higgins.

In 1789, aged eleven, San Martín left the Real Seminario de Nobles and enrolled in the Regiment of Murcia, starting his military career.

Military career in Europe

After joining the Regiment of Murcia, San Martín participated on several campaigns in Africa, fighting in Melilla and Oran, among other places. Later, by the end of the First Coalition of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1797, his rank was raised to Sub-Lieutenant for his actions against the French in the Pyrenees. On August of the same year, after several engagements, his regiment surrendered to British naval forces. Soon afterwards, he continued to fight in southern Spain, mainly in Cádiz and Gibraltar with the rank of Second Captain of light infantry.

When the Peninsular War started in 1808, San Martín was assigned ayudante (Spanish, helper) of the First Regiment Voluntarios de Campo Mayor. After his actions against the French, he became Captain of the Regiment of Borbon. On July 19, 1808, Spanish and French forces engage in the Battle of Bailén, in which Spanish forces prevailed, allowing the Army of Andalucia to attack and seize Madrid. For his actions during this battle, San Martín was decorated with a gold medal, and his rank raised to Lieutenant Colonel.

While in Spain, San Martín became acquainted with several criollos, and becomes aware of the independentists movements in America. Years later, on September 11, 1848, in a letter to Ramón Castilla he would write that in 1811, “In a meeting of Americans in Cadiz, knowing of the first movements of Caracas, Buenos Aires and elsewhere we resolved to return each to our country of birth, in order to offer our services to the struggle we considered was bound to intensify”.

On May 16, 1811, he participated on the Battle of Albuera under the command of general William Carr Beresford. During the battle he met Scottish Lord MacDuff (James Duff, the Fourth Earl of Fife) who introduced him to the lodges that were plotting the South American independence efforts. San Martín requested resignation from the Spanish army, which was granted.


With the help of Lord MacDuff, San Martín obtained a passport to England where he met several criollos who were part of the Logia de los Caballeros Racionales (Lodge of the Rational Knights) founded by the Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda. According to Argentine historian Felipe Pigna, San Martín was introduced to the Maitland Plan by members of the lodge founded by Miranda and Lord MacDuff.

In 1812, San Martín set sail to Buenos Aires aboard the British frigate George Canning.

South America


Following his arrival in Buenos Aires on March 9, 1812, his rank of Lieutenant Colonel was recognized by the Triumvirate and he was thus entrusted with the creation of the Regiment of Mounted Granadiers (Regimiento de Granaderos a Caballo), which would become the best-trained military arm of the revolution.

During 1812, he focused on training troops by following the modern warfare techniques he had acquired during the Peninsular War. With Carlos María de Alvear and José Matias Zapiola, he also entablished the Logia Lautaro, an offspring in Buenos Aires of the independence lodges in London and Cádiz. On August of the same year, he married María de los Remedios de Escalada, a young woman from one of the local wealthy families.

In October, when news of the victory of the Army of the North (Spanish, Ejército del Norte) commanded by Manuel Belgrano reached Buenos Aires, the Lautaro Lodge initiated political pressure, backed by San Martín armed forces and popular demand, to impose its candidates into government, thus forcing the First Triumvirate to an end and initiating the Second Triumvirate with members Juan José Paso, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, and Antonio Álvarez Jonte (Rodríguez Peña and Álvarez Jonte were members of the lodge). This new government strengthened the position held by the Army, and decided to lay siege to Montevideo, which was controlled by loyalist to the Spanish Crown. On December 7, 1812, San Martín was promoted to Colonel.

Beginning of his military career in South America

Although not technically a battle (in Spanish the battle is referred as Combate de San Lorenzo (“San Lorenzo Combat”), references in English language refer to the event as the “Battle of San Lorenzo”.

On January 28, 1813, San Martín with his Mounted Granadiers (comprising around 150 soldiers) was sent to protect the Paraná River shore from the Spanish Fleet of 11 ships under command of General José Zavala. On the morning of February 3, the Spanish forces of around 250 men disembarked and fought against San Martín in the Battle of San Lorenzo.

During the fight, San Martín’s horse was shot dead and fell, trapping one of San Martín’s legs underneath the dead horse. This made him an easy target, but Sargent Juan Bautista Cabral helped him extricate himself. While he was helping the Colonel, Cabral was attacked himself, and died from his wounds after the battle. After the battle, San Martín was promoted to General. This was San Martín’s first military action in South America.

Army of the North

After the victories of the Army of the North in the battles of Tucuman and Salta, the Army commanded by Manuel Belgrano lost ground after defeats in the Battles of Vilcapugio (October 1) and Ayuhuma November 14, 1813. The Triumvirate then decided to send San Martín to the North with a small infantry army and his cavarly regiment.

After joining the defeated Army of the North in Yatasto, he took command in January 1814, Belgrano becoming second in command. During his command, the Army camped in Tucumán, where he started instructing the troops, created a new military school, and sent Colonel Martín Guemes to fight against loyalist coming from Peru to gain time. However, after minor struggles in Salta and Jujuy, news of the victory of Commander Guillermo Brown against the loyalist’s navy, and the resulting blockade of Montevideo, made the loyalist forces from Peru retreat to concentrate its forces.

On April 1814, San Martín was granted a leave to treat an illness and moved to Córdoba.

During his command of the Army of the North, San Martín confirmed one of the reasons behind the Maitland Plan’s scheme: royalist forces that came down from the Upper Peru (roughly present day Bolivia) were easily defeated by the independentist forces in the valleys of Salta and Jujuy. But because of the geographical advantage, forces attacking Upper Peru were easily defeated by the royalists for the very same reasons.

Governor of Cuyo

In Córdoba, San Martín continued preparing his plan of attacking Lima –the Capital city of the Viceroyalty of Peru– through Chile. To this end, he requested to be appointed governor of Cuyo. Later, Juan Pueyrredón was sent by the provisional government of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, and gave San Martín full support on his Liberatory Campaign (Spanish, Campaña Libertadora).

Once in office, while San Martín was focused on preparations for the Crossing of the Andes (Spanish, Cruce de los Andes), he also performed his duties as Governor. During his term, he made tax collection stricter, farm workers were reglamented, ordered a massive vaccination against small pox, and founded a library. He also reorganized the mail service to strengthen its security. Meanwhile, he tried to exhort other provinces to declare independence. Particularly, Tomás Godoy Cruz, receive his letters regularly on this matter.

One month after he took office, royalist forces defeated rebel forces under Bernardo O’Higgins’ command (O’Higgins fled to the Andes). San Martín strengthened his espionage network with the so-called Guerra de zapa (Spanish; “War of Zapa”), a pun on the expression Trabajo de zapa, which means hidden work done slyly towards some particular aim.

On this behalf, San Martín sent his Aide-de-camp and amateur cartographer Álvarez Condaco (carrying an Act of Independence to Chile as an excuse) through Los Patos pass (the longest path), and returned through the Uspallata (the shortest one), to perform reconnaissance of several locations, mainly the Chacabuco area. Other measures included a disinformation campaign in Chile by sending fake information on the possible attack routes, and information gathering of the situation in Chile in order to prevent a possible attack from there.

Army of the Andes

During his governorship of Cuyo, he organized the Army of Cuyo. On 8 November 1814 he created the 11th Battalion of Infantry (Spanish, Batallón Número 11 de Infantería) which included the Corps of Chile (Spanish, Cuerpo de Chile, which was under command of Argentine General Gregorio de Las Heras. These Chilean corps were remnants of the army that had fled from Chile after the Battle of Rancagua. By October 1815, after contributions of several provinces, the army had 1,600 infantry soldiers, 1,000 men in cavalry, 200 men in artillery and 10 cannons. However many problems arose, such as low supplies of powder, iron, and uniforms. Because existing local industries were not enough to supply the Army of the North, San Martín handled the problem by creating local industries in Cuyo to meet the requirements of the army he was creating.

On the other hand, despite having the support of the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata, the support was far from being at a national level. His efforts were often undermined by the skepticism of some local leaders about the viability of the campaign against the Viceroyalty of Peru through the Andes. However, on August 1, 1816, Pueyrredón renamed the army to Army of the Andes (Spanish, Ejército de los Andes) and San Martín was appointed General in chief, and gave the army national priority.

By the end of the preparations, the Army of the Andes had 3 generals, 28 chiefs, 207 officials, 15 civil employees, 3,778 soldiers, and 1,392 auxiliary forces, totalling 5,423 men, 18 pieces of artillery, 1,500 horses and 9,280 mules. All of these were placed under the command of San Martín.

Crossing of the Andes

In September 1816, San Martín relocated his Army of the Andes to Plumerillo, in the northern part of Mendoza Province, where he finished the details to start his crossing of the Andes. The army was divided in two main columns and four minor ones, keeping the decided paths in secret.


Posted by Alex on Sat, 26 Dec 2009 13:41 | #


On January 18, 1817, a main column parted with the artillery to Chile through Uspallata, under command of General Las Heras, reaching Las Cuevas on February 1, 1817. The second main column led by San Martín, left on January 19 through Los Patos pass, and reached San Andrés de Tártaro on February 8, where he was later joined by Las Heras, concluding the first part of the crossing. By the time the main columns reunited, both had already had minor skirmishes: the first column had fought royalists in Potrerillos, while the forces led by San Martín had fought the Battles of Achupallas and Las Coimas.

The crossing of the Andes took twenty-one days. It was an extremely difficult enterprise, with temperatures ranging from 30° Celsius during the day to -10° Celsius at night, altitudes averaging 3000 meters above sea level, and paths that were far from being roads appropriate for an army: they consisted of a 50 cm wide paths mainly used by locals for travelling on mules, with several passages which had to be crossed literally in single file. Besides all those hardships, San Martín was far from healthy and was carried on a stretcher during most of the trip. By the end of crossing, around 300 men — 5.5% of the total at the beginning — had lost their lives, mostly due to the harsh conditions of the trip.

Campaign in Chile

After crossing the Andes and entering Chile, the Spanish royalist forces were taking positions in Mount Cuesta Vieja, preparing themselves for the confrontation against the Army of the Andes.

The Battle of Chacabuco - 1817

Battle of Chacabuco

By February 10, 1817, the Army of the Andes was in the Aconcagua valley, and the Spanish royalist forces had not still taken full positions. San Martín then took the initiative and hastened preparations for his attack. Despite a severe attack of Rheumatoid arthritis, San Martín commanded the battle, and seeing the Spanish forces under numerical inferiority and considering the surprise factor, developed a strategy for the Spanish forces to surrender, avoiding bloodshed.

At 2 am on February 12, 1817, the forces commanded by San Martín started ascending Mount Cuesta Vieja, divided in two main divisions. Facing south, the division on the left was under General Miguel Estanislao Soler and the one to the right under O’Higgins’ command. Initially the strategy consisted on the right division under Soler’s command to take position on the rear of the loyalist, while the forces under O’Higgins would face the vanguard. Meanwhile, squads of the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers were scouting the area.

At around 10 pm, the Grenadiers took the vanguard of the royalist forces by surprise – Spanish General Rafael Maroto was expecting two more days to take positions, and to receive more troops – and charged against the fleeing royalist infantry. This secured an important strategic position for the battle, where O’Higgins’ division was placed. O’Higgins then requested permission to pursue the fleeing royalist vanguard in order to avoid their reorganization, to which San Martín agreed but recommended not taking action until Soler’s division was in place. Despite this, the forces led by O’Higgins went down, only to find an arroyo (creek), leaving them in a bad position and in range of enemy guns. At this point, O’Higgins division started retreating. Seeing the delicate position of the O’Higgins’ troops, San Martín sent a message to Soler, ordering him to hurry up and charge. According to historian Bartolomé Mitre, maybe because of his bad relationship with Soler, and not wanting him to take credit of the victory, O’Higgins ordered a charge, yelling “Soldiers! To live with honor or die in glory! Follow me the brave one. Columns, charge!”. The charge was a stalemate until Soler’s division joined the battle turning the odds in favor of the patriot side.

After the battle, the royalist forces had suffered five hundred casualties and six hundred royalist soldiers had been taken prisoner. On the Army of the Andes side, there were twelve killed and around one hundred wounded. The army also gained new artillery and other weapons, besides restoring the Chilean revolution.

San Martín sent a a message reporting the victory: “The Army of the Andes has attained glory and can report: In twenty-four days we have completed the campaign, passed through the highest mountain range on the globe, defeated the tyrants and given freedom to Chile”.

Statue of José de San Martín
in Santiago de Chile.

Chacabuco aftermath

On February 14, San Martín and O’Higgins triumphally entered Santiago, and on February 18, in a meeting held in the town open hall, San Martín was appointed Governor of Chile. San Martín immediately resigned, thus O’Higgins was elected Supreme Director of the State of Chile (Spanish, Director Supremo del Estado de Chile). The United Army (Spanish, Ejército Unido) was created with Chilean and Argentine soldiers. The Chilean soldiers were under O’Higgins command, while San Martín was General in Chief of the whole United Army.

Then San Martín, in order to raise funds for a fleet, left for Buenos Aires. After negotiating with Pueyrredón, a delegation was sent to London to provide ships for a new fleet in the Pacific Ocean. Back in Chile in the last days of 1817, San Martín sent a delegation to Lima under the pretext of proposing to the Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela of Peru the regularization of the war and exchange of POWs. The real purpose was to gain as much information as possible about the enemy’s plans. The delegation brought the news that a Spanish army under General Mariano Osorio was about to set sail in four frigates to southern Chile.

Despite the success in the Battle of Chacabuco, and while leaving Santiago and the northern Chile under patriot control, the royalist forces still had strong presence in southern Chile. The men under Osorio’s command joined the royalist forces in the south by sea. The royalists also had allied themselves with Mapuche native Americans.

Battle of Cancha Rayada

On 19 March 1818, the royalist forces concentrated and fortified in Talca with around five thousand men under General Osorio, while the independent forces of around seven thousand men formed by the United Army were taking positions in the Cancha Rayada plains. San Martín, fearing an attack on his flank, ordered a change of position of the troops.

Knowing their disadvantage in number and cavalry, the Spanish General Mariano Osorio was not eager to engage in battle, fortifying in Talca. However, after a suggestion from Colonel José Ordóñez a confrontation was decided upon, under Ordoñez’ command. In a bold move, Ordoñez made the kind of attack San Martín had feared: circumventing the city and making a surprise attack at night behind the vanguard where the patriot forces were still taking positions. The surprise attack happened before the patriot army had re-positioned itself, and was a directed at the battalion under O’Higgins command, near San Martín’s position. Soon, the vanguard soldiers dispersed, leaving O’Higgins in a bad position; his horse was shot dead and he was wounded in one arm. In an uncharacteristic move, instead of ordering retreat San Martín held the position, which made more patriot soldiers flee under enemy fire, leaving weapons and supplies behind. After the initial disorder, however, he ordered retreat. The rear and reserves had already re-positioned, somewhat withstanding the attack, but had no-one in command (Colonel Hilarión de la Quintana had left to headquarters to receive orders after the re-position and had not yet returned). Las Heras took command, and led the men during the retreat, while trying to recover as much artillery and weapons as possible. San Martín and O’Higgins (who were also retreating at full speed) were being closely chased by royalist forces.

By 21 March 1818, the decimated patriot forces of around three and half thousand men reunited in San Fernando, while news of the defeat reached Santiago. Rumors of deaths of O’Higgins and San Martín were spreading, and an exodus from Santiago to Mendoza started. Regarding the battle, San Martín sent the following message: “Camping the army under my command in the outskirts of Talca, it was attacked by the enemy, and suffered an almost generalized disbanding which forced me to retreat. I’m reuniting the troops right now, with happy results, as I’m already counting 4,000 men from Curicó to Palequén”.

The battle (which was the only defeat the campaign had suffered) resulted in around 150 killed, and two hundred men taken prisoner. Several hundred had deserted, the whole artillery of the Argentine side was lost along with considerable amounts of horses, mules and weapons from both the Chilean and Argentine parts of the army. Despite the royalist victory, the action proved decimating to their side: two hundred soldiers had been killed, three hundred men captured and around six hundred had deserted, a total comprising more than half the two thousand men that had charged into the battle.

Battle of Maipú

After the sorpresa de Cancha Rayada (surprise of Cancha Rayada), the royalist forces concentrated and marched towards Santiago. On 4 April 1818, the United Army took positions in Loma Blanca, near the Maipú plains. The army separated into three divisions: Las Heras commanding the column on the right, Colonel Rudecindo Alvarado commanding the column on the left, and Quintana at the rear. O’Higgins (still wounded) was in charge of the reserves.

The royalist forces under General Osorio’s command took defensive positions, despite the convictions of some Colonels (among whom was Ordoñez) that taking the offensive as in Cancha Rayada was the best option. According to Irish Mounted Granadier John Thomond O’Brien, San Martín, seeing Osorio’s disposition of the forces, exclaimed “Osorio is clumsier than I thought. Today’s triumph is ours. The sun as witness!”.

Around 11 am on the morning of 5 April 1818, the patriotic forces charged against the royalist forces with devastating resolution: after the sustained six-hour battle, the royalists were defeated. Osorio attempted to retreat to a property called “Lo Espejos” (The Mirrors) but failing to reach it, fled to Talcahuano with around twelve hundred men, although virtually rendered useless as they had lost most, if not all, of their weapons.

The royalist forces suffered two thousand dead, three thousand prisoners taken and lost all its artillery. The patriotic forces, on the other hand, suffered one thousand casualties. Historian and Colonel José Luis Picciuolo stated in his book Argentina Cavalry in the History of the Army that “this battle was executed as a typical act of annihilation”.

As result of the battle, the Spanish control over northern Chile ended, and the independence declared on 12 February 1818 was partially accomplished. Viceroy Pezuela considered northern Chile lost, and Osorio set sail for Peru, leaving Colonel Juan Francisco Sánchez in charge of one thousand men in Talcahuano.

San Martín’s portrait appears
on the Argentine five-peso bill.

Fleet of the Pacific

Since the Battle of Chacabuco, San Martín had urged both governments of Santiago and Buenos Aires to build a fleet on the Pacific. Convoys had been sent to the United States and England in order to buy and hire several ships, however, lack of political cohesion in Argentina, a Spanish blockade in Valparaiso, and the Battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipú heavily delayed the project. On the other hand, the mountainous landscape of the region lent itself to a large dependence of the colonial Chilean economy on maritime trade routes and shipping. This meant that there was an abundance of shipyards and a ready supply of sailors.

Right after the Battle of Maipú, San Martín left for Buenos Aires in order to speed up the process (and meet his wife and daughter which he had not seen since the start of the Campaign of the Andes). Once in Buenos Aires, after learning the fact that half a million pesos would not be available for the project from Pueyrredón, San Martín resigned as Commander of the Army under the pretext of being prescripted by his doctor to take rest in Chile’s hotsprings. The resignation was not accepted and San Martín was granted a license.

Act of Rancagua

After Supreme Director José Rondeau was defeated in the Battle of Cepeda, San Martín sent his resignation of the Army’s command from Santiago to Rancagua, where Colonel Las Heras had settled with the army, arguing that the authority to which he had to report had ceased to exist, and thus his own authority had expired. The officials of the army rejected his resignation on the basis that the army’s goal was to hasten the happiness of the country and the authority was given ultimately by the health of the people, something that was immutable and could not expire.


On 20 August 1820, a fleet of eight warships and sixteen transport ships of the Chilean Navy, under the command of Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, set sail from Valparaíso to Paracas, southern Peru.

On 7 September, the army landed on Paracas and successfully attacked Pisco. On 11 September 1820, San Martín sent a “manifesto” to the Peruvian people stating “My announcement is not that of a conqueror that tries to create a new enslavement. I cannot help but be an accidental instrument of justice and agent of destiny. The outcome of victory will make Peru’s capital see for the first time their sons united, freely choosing their government and emerging into the face of earth among the rank of nations”.

Expedition of Peru

While previous campaigns had been militaristic, San Martín avoided confrontation in Peru and emphazised diplomacy. His strategy consisted of waiting for the Peruvian people to begin the uprising by themselves. This resulted in many diplomatic envoys to Lima, urging viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela to grant the independence of Peru. However, these diplomatic efforts proved fruitless…


Posted by Alex on Wed, 30 Dec 2009 14:56 | #


After seizing Pisco, the army set sail on 26 October toward the north and landed at Huacho – a better place from a strategic point of view – on 12 November. Huacho was used by San Martín as his main headquarters from thereon. While there, San Martín first heard of the emancipation of Guayaquil under the leadership of Peruvian Gregorio Escobedo. This and other events such as the maritime blockade of Callao by Cochrane and the victories over royalists by Alvarez de Arenales in Guacarillo (6 October) and Pasco (20 December) strengthened the position of the main independentist effort led by San Martín.

On 29 January, Pezuela was deposed by José de la Serna. On 21 February 1821, San Martín promulgated the Provisional Rules (Spanish, Reglamento Provisional) aimed to provide legal guarantees to the Peruvian citizens, and designed the first flag of Peru. Soon afterwards he started preparing to march on Lima.

In March, 1821 the army set sail and landed in Ancón (near Lima), while dispatching general Guillermo Miller to the southern coasts and Alvarez de Arenales towards the eastern hills, furthering Lima’s isolation. Diplomatic efforts once again failed, as Viceroy Serna did not agree to declare independence, and San Martín did not accept Serna’s proposal of acceptance by the independentists of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and the sending emissaries to the Cortes Generales.

On 2 July, San Martín met Viceroy Serna. This time San Martín proposed to create a constitutional monarchy with a European monarch to be appointed later. Serna, arguing that he did not have the power to make such a decision, asked for two days to discuss the issue. However after discussing the issue with the royalist forces’ commanders, the proposition was turned down on the basis that they did not have the power to grant independence, even if it was to create a monarchy.

Protector of Peru

José de San Martín’s proclamation of the independence of Peru on 28 July 1821 in Lima, PeruSan Martín occupied Lima, the capital of Peru, on 12 July 1821. This was a huge loss for the Spanish forces. Independence from Spain for Peru was finally declared on 28 July 1821 and he was voted the “Protector” of the newly independent nation. During the same year, he founded the National Library of Peru, to which he donated his collection of books, and praised the new library as “... one of the most efficient means to spread our intellectual values”. After Peru’s parliament had been assembled, he resigned his command.

Meeting in Guayaquil

On 26 July 1822, he met with Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil to plan the future of Latin America. Most of the details of this meeting were secret at the time, and this has made the event a matter of much debate among later historians. Some believe that Bolívar’s refusal to share command of the combined forces made San Martín withdraw from Peru and resettle as a farmer in Mendoza, Argentina. Another theory claims that San Martín yielded to Bolívar’s energy and avoided a confrontation.

General San Martin in Paris - 1848

Exile in Europe

In 1824, after his wife Remedios de Escalada died, he moved to Europe with his daughter Mercedes, first in England, then in Brussels. To keep a neutral position during the 1830 Belgian Revolution, he moved to Paris where he caught the cholera. Cured but weakened, he bought a house and retired at Grand-Bourg, near Evry, but was once again disturbed by history. In 1848, when the revolution started in Paris, he decided to move to London, but finally stopped in Boulogne-sur-Mer where he spent the remainder of his days.

His last acts on Argentine soil was the accepting of a gift from Buenos Aires governor Juan Manuel de Rosas and his refusing to fight in the civil wars that tore the country apart.

In 1880 his remains were taken from Brunoy to Buenos Aires and reinterred in the Buenos Aires Cathedral.

Anthem to San Martín

Anthem to the Liberator General San Martín
Music: Arturo Luzzatt Lyrics: Segundo M. Argarañaz

Climbs the Andes until their highest peak From the sea, the metal of his voice and between skies and everlasting snows shalt itrise the throne of the Liberator.

May trumpets of glory sound clearly and rise a tryumphal anthem because the light of history make gigantic the figure of the Great Captain.

Great father of the Argentine People, big hero of freedom! beneath his shadow the Fatherland grows in virtute, in work, and in peace.

San Martín! San Martín! may your name, the honour and glory of the people of the South, assure for ever the fates of the Fatherland enlightened by your light

From the lands of River Plate to Mendoza, from Santiago to gentile Lima, he went seeding laurels in the way in his triumphal journey, San Martín.

San Martín, the lord of war, for God’s secret chose, was big when the Sun enlightened him, and even bigger in the Sun’s decline.


1 (Spanish) Notification to the Government sent by San Martín after the Battle of San Lorenzo (Wikisource)
2 (Spanish) from San Martín to Bolivar (1821) (Wikisource)
3 (Spanish) José de San Martín (Wikipedia)
4 (Spanish) Bernardo O’Higgins (Wikipedia)
5 (Spanish) Batalla de Maipú (Wikipedia)
6 (Spanish) Batalla de Chacabuco (Wikipedia)



Posted by Alex on Wed, 30 Dec 2009 15:25 | #


‘The United States of South America’

Upon the completion of the revolutions of Central and South American states Simon Bolivar calls together a congress to meet in Panama in 1826 to discuss a potential union.    The name of the proposed super-state…the ‘United States of South America’.

South America - 1860

United States of South America

The United States of South America is a political term and a state proposed by Simón Bolivar that was meant to include all the territories liberated by him and his friend José de San Martín. The term has recently resurged as the result of South American integration, such as the merging of Mercosur and CAN.

Proposed State

At the end of the Wars of Independence, fought in the 1810s and 1820s by the colonies of Spain in South America, several sovereign nations arose on the continent.

The notion of closer hemispheric union in the Americas was first put forward by the Liberator Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a Confederation of Latin American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico, but the grandly titled “Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation” was ultimately only ratified by Gran Colombia. Bolívar’s dream soon floundered irretrievably with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics.

The proposed confederation has never been realized. In the Cuzco Declaration of 2004, the South American countries said that by creating the South American Community of Nations they would try to partially realize Bolívar’s dream of uniting Latin America. Some other names proposed for this new Community of Nations was Unión de Sudamérica (Union of South America) whose abbreviations in Spanish (and English) were USA, and United States of South América.

Congress of Panama

The Congress of Panama (often referred to as the Amphictyonic Congress in remembrance of the Amphictyonic League of Ancient Greece) was a congress organized by Simón Bolívar in 1826 so that Latin American countries could become closer and develop a unified policy towards Spain. Held in Panama City from 22 June to 15 July of that year, the meeting proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. It was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica), and Mexico. However, the grandly titled “Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation” that emerged from the Congress was ultimately only ratified by Gran Colombia, and Bolívar’s dream soon foundered irretrievably with civil war in that nation, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics.

The Congress of Panama also had political ramifications in the United States. President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay wanted the U.S. to attend the Congress,which had only been invited due to pressure on Bolivar but, as much of Latin America had outlawed slavery, politicians from the Southern United States held up the mission by not approving funds or confirming the delegates. In the event, of the two U.S. delegates, one (Richard C. Anderson) died en route to Panama, and the other (John Sergeant) only arrived after the Congress had concluded its discussions. Thus Great Britain, who was there only as an observer, managed to acquire many good trade deals with Latin American countries.



As things stand at present…

We are here to make Simón Bolívar’s dream real…Sooner, rather than later, we shall have a single currency, a single passport… Sooner, rather than later, we shall have a parliament with directly elected representatives for this new nation that we are creating today.  Former Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo, 8 December 2004

The leaders announced their intention to model the new community after the European Union, including a common currency, parliament, and passport. According to Allan Wagner, former Secretary General of the Andean Community, a complete union like that of the EU should be possible by 2019.

South American Community of Nations

The South American Community of Nations (CSN) (Spanish: Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones, Portuguese: Comunidade Sul-Americana de Nações, Dutch: Zuid-Amerikaanse Statengemeenschap) will be a continent-wide free trade area that will unite two existing free-trade organizations—Mercosur and the Andean Community—eliminating tariffs for non-sensitive products by 2014 and sensitive products by 2019. The headquarters of this new organization will be in Lima while the South American Bank will be in Brasilia according to the agreements during the meetings. Complete integration between the Andean Community and Mercosur into the South American Community of Nations is expected by 2007.


At the Third South American Summit, on 8 December 2004, presidents or representatives from twelve South American nations signed the Cuzco Declaration, a two-page statement of intent, announcing the foundation of the South American Community. Panama attended the signing ceremony as an observer.

The leaders announced their intention to model the new community after the European Union, including a common currency, parliament, and passport. According to Allan Wagner, former Secretary General of the Andean Community, a complete union like that of the EU should be possible by 2019.

The mechanics of the new entity should come out at the First South American Community of Nations Heads of State Summit, which was held in Brasília on 29 September-30 September 2005. A constitution was also expected to be drafted in 2005. The Second Summit will be held in Bolivia. No new institutions will be created in the first phase, so as not to increase bureaucracy, and the community will use the existing institutions belonging to the previous trade blocs.


Simón Bolívar, directly responsible for the independence of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, part of Peru and Bolivia in the early years of the 19th century, and honored with statues in the capital cities of practically every Latin American nation had the goal of creating a federation of nations to ensure prosperity and security after independence. Bolívar never achieved this goal, and died an unpopular figure because of his heavy-handed attempts to establish strong central governments in the nations he led to independence.

Participating nations

The 12 community members:

Members of the Andean Community (CAN):

Bolivia (started the process of joining Mercosur in 2006)

Members of Mercosur:


Other countries:

Chile (in process of re-joining the Andean Community)

Current works in progress

The South American Community of Nations started plans of integration with the construction of the Interoceanic Highway, a road that intends to unite Peru with Brazil by extending a highway through Bolivia, giving that country a path to the sea, while Brazil would obtain access to the Pacific Ocean and Peru to the Atlantic Ocean. Construction started in September 2005, financed 60% by Brazil and 40% by Peru. It is estimated to be done by 2009.

On 24 November 2006, the foreign ministers of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela reached an agreement to waive Visa requirements for tourism travel between nationals of said countries.

In January 2007, Peruvian President Alan García called for a single South American currency.

Name change proposal

On 28 December 2005, Chilean foreign minister Ignacio Walker proposed that the name of the community be changed to South American Union (Spanish: Unión Sudamericana, Portuguese: União Sul-Americana); nevertheless, many members stated to him that that proposal had already been rejected to prevent confusion related to its acronym (U.S.A.).



Posted by Alex on Wed, 30 Dec 2009 15:43 | #

This article offers some insight into the history of post revolutionary 19th century South America with an emphasis on Ecuador and its two term president Garcia Moreno.

The coming of independence to Latin America saw the formation of two parties in every country there: Liberal and Conservative. Conservatives looked toward Europe, and particularly Spain, for social and political inspiration…The Liberals looked to the United States as a guide…

Garcia Moreno

Gabriel García Moreno (December 24, 1821 – August 6, 1875) was an Ecuadorian statesman who twice served as President of his country (1859-1865 and 1869-1875).[1] He is noted for his conservatism, Catholic religious perspective, and rivalry with liberal strongman Eloy Alfaro. Under his administration, Ecuador became the leader in the fields of science and higher education within Latin America.

Part of the animosity Garcia Moreno generated was his friendship toward the Society of Jesus, better known as the Jesuits. During a period of exile, he helped a group of displaced Jesuits to find refuge in Ecuador. This action and many similar ones encouraged the anti-Catholic parties of Ecuador, especially the Masons, to see in him an inveterate enemy.

While the politics of his age were extremely convoluted and murky, the fact that he was elected to a second term of office clearly indicates his popular appeal, both with the Catholic Church and with the masses. His vigorous support of universal literacy and education based on the French model was both controversial and bold.

Through his mother García Moreno he was a member of a wealthy and promiment Spanish aristocratic family. Among his relatives were José de la Cruz Ignacio Moreno y Maisonave, Archbishop of Toledo and Carindal Primate of Spain and his brother Teodoro Moreno y Maisonave, count of Moreno and justice of the Spanish Supreme Court.

García Moreno founded the Conservative Party in 1869. He was killed in office by a machete-wielding ecuadorianized Colombian citizen called Faustino Rayo. After his death, his memory has continued to be celebrated in Ecuador, both as a great patriot and educator while also being a friend of the Church.

Ecuador after Independence

The coming of independence to Latin America saw the formation of two parties in every country there: Liberal and Conservative. Conservatives looked toward Europe, and particularly Spain, for social and political inspiration. They wished to retain the Catholic Church in the position which she had had from the first settlement; furthermore, they wanted the great estates to remain like those of Europe—-self-contained communities which, despite failing to make a great deal of money for their owners, did build social stability. The Liberals looked to the United States as a guide, wanted separation of Church and State, and wished to turn the great estates into money-making concerns, like factories. These two groups had clashed since independence. The Conservatives had indeed produced some great leaders, like Mexico’s Agust’n I and Guatemala’s Rafael Carrera. As the 19th Century progressed, both parties were faced with the impact such inventions as the railroad would make on their countries.


He was born in 1821, the son of Gabriel García y Gómez, a Spanish merchant, and María de las Mercedes Moreno y Morán de Buitrón, a member of a wealthy aristocratic family in Ecuador’s main port, Guayaquil. Garcia Moreno studied theology and law in the university of Quito. Thinking he had a vocation to the priesthood, he received minor orders and the tonsure; but his closest friends and his own interests convinced him to pursue a more worldly career. Graduating in 1844, he was admitted to the bar. Starting his career as both lawyer and journalist (opposed to the Liberal government in power) he made little headway. In 1849 he embarked on a two year visit to Europe to see first hand the effects of the 1848 revolution. He made a second trip in 1854-56. Louis Veulliot (himself a great champion of the Faith in the press) described what these trips did for Garcia Moreno:

[indent]In a foreign land, solitary and unknown, Garcia Moreno made himself fit to rule. He learned all that was necessary for him to know in order to govern a nation, formerly Christian but now falling fast into an almost savage condition…Paris, which is at once a Christian and a heathen city, is the very place where the lesson he needed would best be acquired, since the two opposing elements may there be seen engaged in perpetual conflict. Paris is a training school for priests and martyrs, it is also a manufactory of anti-Christs and assassins. The future president of Ecuador gazed upon the good and the evil, and when he set out for his home afar, his choice was made.[/indent]

He returned home in 1856 to find his country in the grip of strident anti-clericals; he was elected a senator and joined the opposition. Although himself a Monarchist (he would have liked to have seen a Spanish prince on the throne) he bowed to circumstances and allowed himself to be made president after a civil war the year after his return—-so great had his stint in the country’s Senate made his reputation. In 1861 this was confirmed in a popular election for a four year term. Unhappily, his successor was deposed by the Liberals in 1867. But two years later he was reelected, and then again in 1875. During his period in office, he propelled his nation forward, all the while uniting her more closely to Catholicism.

Personally pious (he attended Mass, daily, as well as visiting the Blessed Sacrament; he received the Eucharist every Sunday—-a rare practice before Pope Pius X—-and belonged to the Workingmen’s section of the Sodality, in which he was quite active), he believed that the first duty of the State was to promote and support Catholicism. Church and State were united, but by the terms of the new concordat, the State’s power over appointments of bishops inherited from Spain was done away with—-at Garcia Moreno’s insistence. The 1869 constitution made Catholicism the religion of the State and required that both candidates and voters for office be Catholic. He was the only ruler in the world to protest the Pope’s loss of the Papal States, and two years later had the legislature consecrate Ecuador to the Sacred Heart.

Economic Climate of Ecuador

In more worldly things, he came to office with an empty treasury and an enormous debt. To overcome this, he placed the government on stringent economy and abolished useless positions, as well as cutting out the corruption which siphoned off tax dollars. As a result he was able to provide Ecuadoreans with more for less. Slavery was abolished, but there was full compensation for the owners; (thus neither former slaves nor masters suffered economically). The army was reformed, with officers being sent to Prussia to study, and illiterate recruits taught basic skills. Houses of prostitution were closed, and hospitals opened in all the major towns. Railroads and national highways were built, telegraph extended, and the postal and water systems improved. City streets were paved, and local bandits suppressed. Garcia Moreno further reformed the universities, established two polytechnic and agricultural colleges and a military school, and increased the number of primary schools to 500 from 200. The number of students in them grew from 8000 to 32,000. To staff the enormously expanded health-care and educational facilities, foreign religious were brought in. All of this was done while expanding the franchise and guaranteeing equal rights under the law to every Ecuadorean.

Political Climate

But the Liberals hated Garcia Moreno; when he was elected a third time in 1875, it was considered to be his death warrant. He wrote immediately to Pius IX asking for his blessing before inauguration day on August 30:

‘I wish to obtain your blessing before that day, so that I may have the strength and light which I need so much in order to be unto the end a faithful son of our Redeemer, and a loyal and obedient servant of His Infallible Vicar. Now that the Masonic Lodges of the neighboring countries, instigated by Germany, are vomiting against me all sorts of atrocious insults and horrible calumnies, now that the Lodges are secretly arranging for my assassination, I have more need than ever of the divine protection so that I may live and die in defense of our holy religion and the beloved republic which I am called once more to rule.’

Garcia Moreno’s prediction was correct; he was assassinated exiting the Cathedral in Quito, struck down with knives and revolvers, his last words being: “¡Dios no muere!” (“God does not die!”) So passed from the scene one of the greatest Catholic statesmen the world has ever seen. He showed that making Catholicism the basis of public policy will not doom a country to poverty, but quite the opposite; all Catholic Latin American politicians who have followed since owe him a great debt.


Gabriel García Moreno. Catholic Encyclopedia.



Posted by Alex on Wed, 30 Dec 2009 16:01 | #

Postscript Cuba

Though not technically part of South America, Spanish Cuba’s fate later in the 19th century is of interest..

Spain’s Caribbean possession Cuba remained loyal through much of the nineteenth century but in 1898 Spanish rule would be overthrown by a US invasion in conjunction with local revolutionary forces it supported.    One of the prominant local forces, described by the Cuban government’s official biography of him as ‘an outstanding patriot and one of the most brilliant strategists of Cuba’s military history,’  was the Cuban general Calixto Garcia Iniguez. 

He was…one of the instigators of the Cuban rebellion of 1868.  For five years he was active and successful in fights and forays against the Spaniards…

....General Garcia was first buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full U.S. military honors…The Masons erected a bronze tablet where he died [in 1898] at the Raleigh Hotel in Washington. 

Cuban Major General Calixto Garcia

General Garcia’s struggles against Spanish tyranny lasted from 1868 to 1898.  When he died General Garcia was first buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full U.S. military honors.  Archbishop Ireland spoke highly of him in his funeral mass.  The Masons erected a bronze tablet where he died at the Raleigh Hotel in Washington.  The Cuban general was very large, strong, educated, hot tempered man but always logical in battle he is known as the strategist.  He was descended from a well known Spanish family with a warrior tradition.  His grandfather Calixto Garcia de Luna e Izquierdo, had fought with the Spanish in the critical Battle of Carabobo in what is now Venezuela (1821) and losing one hand was one of a small number of Spanish survivors.  His grandfather, who dropped the aristocratic de Luna part when he took refuge in Cuba, was jailed for demanding emancipation for the slaves, constitutional freedom for all, and it is reported trying to hang a priest who opposed this, on March 18, 1837.

There is a semi-mythical report that General Calixto Garcia Iñiguez was descended from King Calixto Garcia-Iñiguez through his mother Lucia Iñiguez Landon.  This king was the son of Iñigo Arista (and hence Iñiguez) founder of the Arista (named from the oak and meaning strong in battle) dynasty of Pamplona.  King Calixto Garcia Iñiguez is recorded as captured and ransomed by the Vikings in 852. There is no complete English language biography of General Calixto Garcia.  Even the books in Spanish cited in the biography only tell selected parts of his life and long military career.  A summary (some corrections from sources cited at end of article are included within brackets) of the general’s life is found in his obituary in Harper’s Weekly (December 24, 1898 p. 1263):

“Destiny, as we all know, is a sarcastic creature, and it happens often that folks die just when it seems to observers that they have got ready to live. It was certainly so with General Calixto Garcia, who died of pneumonia, in Washington, on December 11 (1898).  It is only a few weeks since he came from Cuba at the head of the special Cuban commission which was empowered to communicate the views of the Cuban leaders to our government.

General Garcia was fifty-eight (59) years old, and for more than half his life his chief concern had been the overthrow of Spanish rule in Cuba.  He was born in Holguin, in 1840 (August 4, 1839), and was one of the instigators of the Cuban rebellion of 1868.  For five years he was active and successful in fights and forays against the Spaniards, but in September 1873 (September 6, 1974) he was surprised with twenty (16) men by 500 (sic).  Seeing that there was no chance to get away, and unwilling to be captured alive, he put the muzzle of his (0.45 caliber) pistol in his mouth and pulled the trigger.  The ball, instead of going through his brain, came out of his forehead between his eyes, and he recovered.  He was sent to Spain and held prisoner until the peace of Zanjon was signed in 1877 (1878).  Then he went to Paris, and hence to New York and back to Cuba, and presently took part with Maceo in what was called “the little war” (1879-1880).  Captured again, his life was spared, and he was sent back to Spain, where he lived for seventeen (15) years under police supervision in Madrid.  There he supported his family, which grew large, by teaching.”

“When the last revolution broke, out in 1894, he grew restless again, and finally slipped away from Madrid and reached New York in November, 1895.  He commanded the Hawkings filbustering expedition which came to grief, but after two more unsuccessful attempt reached Cuba in March 1896.  His record as Cuban leader after that is a matter of general knowledge.  His cooperation with the American Forces in the Capture of Santiago fairly brought him in at the death of the Spanish rule that he fought so long.”

“Of the three Cuban generals of greatest note in the last revolution (Antonio Maceo and Máximo Gómez) only Gomez now survives.”


The text of the official war report sent by Major General Calixto García Iñiguez to his superior, the Commander in Chief of the Cuban Armies, Major General Gómez.

My purpose at that place was to conference with U.S. Navy Admiral Sampson who had called the meeting to discuss the best way to attack Santiago.  This conference took place on the U.S. Admiralty vessel New York.

To clarify this matter, I ordered my troops to march on Santiago de Cuba; and went to the meeting called by the Chief of the U.S. Navy force.  I began following orders and instructions of the Chiefs of the U.S. Armed Forces as soon as they began to attempt entry into areas under my command.

USS Indiana

Headquarters Casa Azul, July 15 1898.

To Major General Máximo Gómez, Commander in Chief of the Cuban Armies:

I have the honor of reporting to you on the operations carried out by the forces under my command since June 1st (1898).

On June 1st, I was notified by General Luis de Feria, Commander of the Oriental Division of Holguín that an expedition had landed at the port of Banes.  The expedition was lead by Brigadier Joaquín Castillo, foreign subdelegate.  The expedition was escorted by the U.S. Navy vessel Oseola.  Thus I marched from Jiguaní towards Banes.  I gave orders that the 4,000 men that you had ordered recruited for this purpose were to go to Banes to be armed and supplied.

On the 6th of June I camped at Vijarú.  That night General Feria arrived.  General Feria was accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel Carlos Hernández, Aide-de-Camp of General Enrique Collazo.  Colonel Hernández had been sent by me to coordinate a campaign plan to fight the enemy in Oriente Province with the U.S. Secretary of War as the Secretary had requested.  Colonel Fernández had just landed in Banes from the U.S. warship Gloucester and was carry dispatches from the Commander in Chief of the U.S. Armies. General Miles.  General Miles dispatches informed me that the plan was to attack the city of Santiago de Cuba by sea and land, and that it was necessary that most Cuban forces proceed towards the city to support the plan.

Immediately I gave orders so that the recently armed forces were to move towards the area of (Santiago de) Cuba.  This was very difficult because of the exhaustion of the infantry and the lack of food.

Despite these difficulties, these forces reached Palma Soriano from where I left on June 8th towards Aserradero (on the other side, the coastal south side of the Sierra Maestra).  I arrived at Aserradero on June 19th 6:30 AM.

My purpose at that place was to conference with U.S. Navy Admiral Sampson who had called the meeting to discuss the best way to attack Santiago.  This conference took place on the U.S. Admiralty vessel New York.

To clarify this matter, I ordered my troops to march on Santiago de Cuba; and went to the meeting called by the Chief of the U.S. Navy force.  I began following orders and instructions of the Chiefs of the U.S. Armed Forces as soon as they began to attempt entry into areas under my command.

On June 20 at 2 pm Brigadier General Demetrio Castillo, Commander of the Ramón de Las Yaguas Brigade landed at Aserradero.  General Castillo had arrived from Sigua in an U.S. vessel.  His purpose was to await my orders.

Soon after Major General William R. Shafter, Commander of the Fifth Corps of the U.S. Army came ashore to talk with me.  General Shafter was in charge of the U.S. forces that were being readied to attack Santiago.  After a long conference and having accepted my plan for landing his troops and advancing successfully on Cuba the American general returned to the ship.

The next day General Agustín Cebreco, marched the troops of his division toward the area near the coast immediately west of Santiago de Cuba.  General Cebreco’s objective was to stop the enemy’s ability to reinforce his coastal garrisons in this area.

At 8 p.m. 530 men from the Bayamo Division of Brigadier Demetrio Castillo boarded an American transport.  Their assignment was to reinforce the Ramón brigade to protect the U.S. landing and to advance on Santiago de Cuba from the East.  These forces landed en Sigua on the 22nd of June and immediately advanced led by Colonel Carlos Gónzalez.  Together with 550 men from the Ramón Brigade lead by their leader General Castillo these Cuban troops advanced on Diaquirí, rapidly displacing the Spanish troops that were there.  As the Cubans took Diaquirí, the U.S. fleet began to shell the position.  However, as soon as the Cuban flag was raised the U.S. shelling stopped.
The U.S. Army landed its first regiments at Diaquirí and advanced on Firmeza and Siboney, led by Cuban troops who were the first to occupy these villages.  In Siboney U.S. forces continued landing.

Meanwhile Cuban troops under Colonel Carlos González advanced towards Santiago de Cuba.  Colonel González and his men had a violent clash with the Spanish at Guásimas.  The Cubans had some losses however, Spanish losses were much greater.

In my conference with Admiral Simpson and Major General Shafter it was agreed that I should board at El Aserradero.  This was done before dark. These Cuban forces were lead by General Capote, those of the division by Cebreco y Lora and by Brigadier Sánchez Hechevarría.  These troops formed three distinct column lead by each of the preceding Major General Jesús Rabí was second in command of all the Cuban troops in the operation.

The about 800 men of Brigadier General Sánchez, were the first to board on the U.S. ship Leone; they landed at 5 p.m. at Siboney.  General of Division Francisco Estrada left towards Aguacate on June 25th to gather the Cuban forces still there.  General Estrada assembled a column of 800 1000 men to march towards Santiago and to fight any Spanish troops attempt to relieve the city.

At dawn on June 26th the rest of my forces were on the steamships Seneca and Orizaba standing off Siboney.  I, with my headquarter staff, and other Jefes by invitation of U.S. General Ludlow who was in charge of our landings, were on the Alamo.  At 7 a.m. we started to land and by 10 a.m. we had landed camping with the rest of the Cuban forces.

There and in the town’s immediate vicinity were our forces that had arrived earlier and several thousand of men of the U.S. Army.  There were friendly exchanges between the Cuban and American forces.  Since we were completely out of food in all our territory the American provided the necessary rations for our sustenance.

On the 25th General Shafter and I had finished our assault plans.  He gave me my orders to march towards Santiago the next day.  He did the same.  Although some regiments and various cannon went forward that same day.  In the very front of the vanguard, visible to the Spanish advanced fortification was Colonel Carlos González Clavel, elements of the Bayamo Division and part of the Ramón de las Yaguas Brigade.

On the 30th I camped with most of my forces on the Salado,  three leagues from Siboney and one and half leagues from Santiago.  General Shafter placed his headquarters in the same place.  At three in the afternoon I received orders to move to Marianaje.  This was between el Caney and San Juan, where I was to protect the batteries which were to shell both positions, from any Spanish attacks coming from Santiago.

At the beginning of the attack on Cuba there were 15,000 U. S. forces on land, and 4,000 Cuban soldiers under my immediate orders near the city.  At five thirty in the morning of July 1, I marched on Marianaje, and at seven occupied my assigned positions thus: on the left over San Juan was Major General José M. Capote with a column of 1000, in the center Division General de Saturnino Lora with 500 men to his right Brigadier General Francisco Sánchez de Echavarría with his column of l,000 men, next was General Cebreco with 500 men of his division.  On the right flank on heights of the batey of Marianaje, was I with General Rabí, our headquarter staff and escort facing the town of El Caney.

To my left flank were American forces with a battery preparing to attack the San Juan block house.  Protecting, were forces under the command of Colonel González and part of the Ramón with other American forces.  To my right flank was the battery that was to fire on El Caney and an American Division under General Lawton ready to assault the town.  Together with was an assault force of 200 from the Ramón Ramón under the command of Commander Víctor Duany.  All the forces of the Ramón were under the direct command of Colonel Carlos González.

At seven the American batteries opened fire on San Juan Hill.  The Spanish artillery returned fired.  A few minutes later the battery assigned to attack El Caney opened fire.  The garrison of that town answered with heavy volleys…


Posted by Alex on Wed, 30 Dec 2009 16:03 | #


El Caney was defended by some l,500 line troops under the command of Brigadier General Vara del Rey.  San Juan was defended by some 2,000 men, also line troops.

At four in the afternoon after a rough assault the Americans took San Juan.  All the Spanish garrison was killed or taken prisoner except some who escaped to Cuba.

At six, after repeated assaults, in which the forces of Commander Duany participated, the Americans also took El Caney. Almost all of the garrison of this town died in the assault and of those who escaped almost all died on retreat.  Among those killed retreating was, already wounded General Vara del Rey.

The enemy tried to attack from Cuba and was turned back.  On that day, in the trenches of Santiago el General Linares, who was in charge of the garrison was wounded and yielded his command to División General, Toral.

The Americans advanced by the Caney road to Cuba up to the Canosa blockhouses on outskirts of the city.  In the van were the forces of Colonel González.  Our losses that day were some one hundred, as they were taking fire without in to combat.

General Shafter ordered me to occupy the right flank of his army in the advance on Santiago.  I made a night march.  At ten that night, after sending some forces directly towards Santiago, I was camped at Quinta de Doucureau.

At dawn of 2nd I continued to advance on the right flank, taking all north of the city.  General Cebreco with forces from his division was leading the van.  And on point in the van was General Sánchez Echavarría and his men.

When the forces reached the Cuba to San Luis railroad.  The center and rear of the column, while the van took various heights on the other side of the track.

In the morning of the 2nd General Francisco Sánchez advance along the railroad towards Santiago de Cuba.  He ran into four (Spanish) guerrillas, they fired and were killed by our troops.

Colonel Ferrera, advanced on the right, fighting a guerrilla on Loma de Quintero, taking this position and the Caridad hill.

During the day I ordered a column to advance along the railroad towards San Luis.  The enemy, after light resistance, abandoned the villages of Cuabitas and Boniato, and several blockhouse falling back on San Vicente.

All the 2nd there was heavy fire exchanged with the enemy in Santiago.  The enemy from his fortifications laid down heavy rifle and cannon fire on our positions.  We had ten casualties.

That day, all the French colony with the French Consul came out to place themselves under our protection.  My forces slept in the positions they took, within rifle range of the city.

All the morning of the 3rd (of July) we engaged in fire fights with the defenders of the city.  At ten the Spanish fleet that was in Santiago’s bay sailed out and was destroyed in less than an hour by the American fleet.

Admiral Cervera, with about 600 of his officers and men tried to take positions on land west of Santiago de Cuba.  Cuban coastal detachments opposed the action.  The Spanish were forced to surrender all their men to Colonel José Candelario Cebreco and his men.  They were delivered, with receipt, to the American fleet.

At twelve thirty a sent a force to fire on the village of San Vicente.  Immediately the Spanish evacuated, falling back towards el Cristo and also abandoning Dos Bocas on the railroad towards San Luis.

On the night of the 3rd (of July) using the Cobre road a column of 5,000 men, lead by Colonel Escario entered into Santiago.  Colonel Escario, who had left Manzanillo the 22nd (of June) was harassed from (Manzanillo) to Baire, by the Manzanillo division.

From Baire to Palma this column was forced to fight hard against the (Cuban) column of General Francisco Estrada, this caused the Spanish hundreds of losses, to the extent that all along the route (Spanish soldiers) bodies were found.  This (Spanish) column also exchanged fire with Lieutenant Colonel Lora, with part of cavalry of the Bayamo Division and with my cavalry escort under the command of Lieutenant Colonel C. M. Poey.

Colonel Escario recovered somewhat in Palma, where he abandoned his casualties.  From here “extraviando caminos” (repeatedly changing routes) he reached Cuba by the Cobre road along which they suffered some firefights.

Perhaps the entry of this column could have been stopped if I had been able to use most of my forces for this purpose.  However, to do this I would have had to abandon my positions to right flank of American Army.

On the 4th of July I receive official dispatches informing me that the enemy had evacuated the Villa of Cobre and the block houses of Bartolón, Monte Real, Coleto y San Miguel.

At twelve the firing stopped so that General Shafter could receive various Spanish parley commissions.  As a result of these (parley commissions) the Spanish Governor of the City authorized the exit of the all families because of the fear that American bombardment of the city would begin, since the (U.S. command) had not answered whether it intended or not to start shelling.  All the families took refuge in the houses and streets of Cuabitas and El Caney.

On the 7th (Cuban) General Estrada with his column of 700 hombres joined the siege (of Santiago).  In those days and previously some American regiments came in from the United States. My forces continued to advance positions on the right flank, closing the lines around the city.

On the 9th and with the truce continuing, the enemy requested that they be permitted to abandon the city and retreat to Holguín.  General Shafter said he would submit the request to his government and I convinced the General, how inconvenient an evacuation of that nature would be.

In those day I had a secret and reliable message from (spies in) Holguín, reporting that there was a strong six to seven thousand man column under the command of General Nario, ready to come to help in Cuba.  In response to this I appropriately ordered guarding all the roads to our rearguard to foil the enemy’s plans to rescue the city.  And so that the enemy in Santiago would stay closed in, I reinforced the weak parts of our lines.

At the same time I renewed my order that all the forces from Camagüey that are now in Oriente.  (I also gave orders that) the two Holguín divisions so that they would place themselves conveniently to cut the road routes that Nario (could take).

On the 9th I advanced my right wing to close the lines (around Santiago).  And since at twelve that day the truce would end, I had my forces make a flank movement so that the enemy would suspect that we were about to surround his positions and trenches of Dos Caminos and cause them to abandon them.

The maneuver was successful, since the enemy hurriedly abandoned the village of Dos Caminos del Cobre and all his blockhouses and trenches this side of the Yarayó.  With this the lines completely surrounded (Santiago).  The forces of the (Cuban) Division of (Santiago de) Cuba occupied all to the west of the city up to the waters of the bay including the Cemetery.

Since the U.S. government had not accepted the Spanish proposal that they evacuate the city and retreat to Holguín, General Shafter notified General Toral that if the city did not surrender he would shell at three in the afternoon.  Since Spanish did not surrender, all the U.S. lines and part of the Cuban lines opened vivo (living) fire with rifle and canon.  At the same time the (U.S.) fleet began to shell the city from the coast.  The firing lasted until dusk when it ceased.

On the 11th the firing and shelling continued until nine in the morning, when another truce was signed.  The enemy took advantage of this to make defensive positions and place canon.  The Americans use the truce to place recently landed artillery batteries.  And we took the time to finish some trenches and place two 12 pound cannon on a height by Dos Caminos, so that we could shell the fortifications between the Bull Ring and the bay.—

During the 12th and 13th the truce continued, we finished placing our cannon, digging our positions in the cemetery and along the front of the city on this (north west) side.

On the 14th firing to begin again at 12 noon; however, the enemy asked for a prórroga (truce extension).  As a result of these truce talks the Spanish decided to surrender the city and all the affected areas in the Comandancia General de Cuba.  That is all those places that the Spanish still held in Oriente Province east of a line that went from Aserradero through Palma to Sagua de Tánamo on the north Norte.  (This was done) under the condition that all (Spanish) forces were to be taken to Spain, by the U.S. Government, via the United States.

General Toral has told General Shafter that 23,000 Spanish troops are involved in this surrender.  With the surrender of Santiago and the rest of the population centers of East Oriente which the Spanish will evacuate soon the Primer Cuerpo (Cuban Army territorial designation) will be free.  In the Segundo Cuerpo the only areas in enemy hands are Holguín, Gibara and the towns of rail line between these two places in the north and Manzanillo with two or three nearby towns in the south.

The American Government has decided for the time being to occupy the city of Santiago de Cuba with two regiments.  Thus, since General Miles, has not given me orders to cooperate in any new operations, I retire the bulk of forces under my command to their respective (home) territories.

I give the appropriate orders to provided to (Cuban) General Juan Ducasse the l,500 men that you (Commander in Chief of the Cuban Armies, Major General Máximo Gómez) have requested from Oriente in the way you have disposed.—

De Ud. con la mayor consideración. (formula end to a very respectful greeting)

P(atria). y L(ibertad).  (Motherland and Freedom)

(signed) Calixto García.





Posted by Lucas Blanco Acosta on Mon, 26 Jul 2010 18:46 | #

Economic dependence is the new colonialism, monarchy or the new world order, that is, the financial order, based on lending, debt, weapons, war and monopoly and manipulation of all these businesses for a being almost invisible : The World Financial monarchy or BRITISH CORPORATION: even the U.S. is a victim of it, since its independence in 1776 misleading. Being the first emancipation of this type. Many of those leaders “libertarians” were manipulated and deceived, but today its leaders knowing their servility, are hypocritical and more faithful to supranational secret lodges their own nation, for their promotions, and supports high levels, the achieving or receiving for making very shameful acts, then they can be easily handled at the point of blackmail by their corporate guardian.
So, today, also worldwide. The current G20 or more developed countries like the U.S., have also been victims, and colognes for over 200 years of British corporation and its octopus war and banking, which is enriched with the “Gran Teatro or Global Deception” that have tax among nations, its purpose is to establish the general chaos, take advantage of this and dismantling the world to weaken and eventually govern. To establish a NEW WORLD ORDER. This is explained very well in THE WORLD OF THE MAFIA CONSPIRACY X, read it free on the web:
Lucas Blanco Acosta

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